March 19, 2018

American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias®

Full text articles are available to members of dementia Australia NSW by emailing

Issue 8, December 2017 , pp. 461–515
Volume 32, Issue 8, December 2017

The TMA-93: A New Memory Test for Alzheimer’s Disease in Illiterate and Less Educated People
; pp. 461–467

Utility of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in Differentiating Dementia With Lewy Bodies From Alzheimer’s Dementia

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are the 2 most common neurodegenerative dementias. Identification of patients with DLB is necessary to guide appropriate clinical management and medication trials. Patients with DLB are reported to perform poorly on tasks of visuospatial and executive function, compared to patients with AD who perform poorly on memory tasks. Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, we found that patients with DLB (n = 73) had statistically significant lower performance in clock drawing (visuospatial and executive function) and higher performance in delayed recall (memory) subscores compared to patients with AD (n = 57). This score pattern should raise suspicion for a DLB diagnosis at initial evaluation of patients with dementia.
; pp. 468–471

Diagnostic Utility of the Shortened Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Patients With Sporadic Late Onset Alzheimer Disease

The classic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) consists of correctly sorting 128 cards according to changing sorting criteria. Its application is costly in terms of the time employed, with all the negative consequences this entails (decrease in motivation, frustration, and fatigue).
; pp. 472–478

Feasibility of a Latin Dance Program for Older Latinos With Mild Cognitive Impairment

. The focus group data revealed 4 themes: enthusiasm for dance, positive aspects of BAILAMOS, unfavorable aspects of BAILAMOS, and physical well-being after BAILAMOS. In conclusion, older Latinos with MCI find Latin dance as an enjoyable and safe mode of physical activity.
 ; pp. 479–488

International Ballroom Dancing Against Neurodegeneration: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Greek Community-Dwelling Elders With Mild Cognitive impairment
Dance may be an important nonpharmacological approach that can benefit cognitive functions.
 ; pp. 489–499

Determination of Aerobic Capacity via Cycle Ergometer Exercise Testing in Alzheimer’s Disease
Older adults with AD are able to safely complete a peak cycle ergometer exercise testing protocol. We provide an individualized cycle ergometer test for determining aerobic capacity in older adults with AD who may be unable to perform treadmill testing due to balance or gait issues.
; pp. 500–508

An Assessment of the Burden on Polish Caregivers of Patients With Dementia: A Preliminary Study
A lot of factors influence the caregivers’ burden. It appears necessary to take into consideration the cultural, religious, and economic distinctiveness of the country in question.
 ; pp. 509–515

Issue 7, November 2017 , pp. 373–451

Volume 32, Issue 7, November 2017
Development and Testing of a Measure of Caregiver Confidence in Medical Sign/Symptom Management

Evaluation of efforts to support family caregivers of people with dementia in their daily medical management responsibilities requires a measure of caregiver self-efficacy (confidence). This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Caregiver Confidence in Sign/Symptom Management (CCSM) scale, the only available instrument in this area. Measurement development included literature and expert panel review, cognitive testing, and field testing. The CCSM is a 25-item measure (α = .92) composed of confidence in relation to 4 subscales: knowledge of signs/symptoms (α = .83), management of cognitive signs/symptoms (α = .85), management of medical signs/symptoms (α = .87), and general medication management/responsiveness (α = .85), all of which relate to caregiver role strain. The CCSM is a reliable and valid instrument to assess caregiver confidence in sign/symptom management and is useful to determine caregiver needs and outcomes of related interventions. Additionally, it furthers understanding of the role of self-efficacy in caregiver quality of life.
; pp. 373–381

Detection Test for Language Impairments in Adults and the Aged—A New Screening Test for Language Impairment Associated With Neurodegenerative Diseases: Validation and Normative Data

To date, there is no quick screening test that could be used during routine office visits to accurately assess language disorders in neurodegenerative diseases. To fill this important gap, we developed the Detection Test for Language impairments in Adults and the Aged (DTLA), a quick, sensitive, standardized screening test designed to assess language disorders in adults and the elderly individuals. In Study 1, we describe the development of the DTLA. In Study 2, we report data on the DTLA’s validity and reliability. Finally, in Study 3, we establish normative data for the test. The DTLA has good convergent and discriminant validity as well as good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Norms for the DTLA obtained from a sample of 545 healthy, community-dwelling, French-speaking adults from 4 French-speaking countries (Belgium, Canada (Quebec), France, and Switzerland) are provided. The development, validation, and standardization of the DTLA constitute a significant effort to meet the need for a language screening test adapted to neurodegenerative diseases.
; pp. 382–392

Cognitive Fluctuations and Cognitive Test Performance Among Institutionalized Persons With Dementia
A simple linear regression model was conducted with DCFS as the predictor variable and SIB total score as the dependent variable. The overall model was significant, suggesting that score on the DCFS significantly predicted SIB total score. Additionally, greater severity of CFs predicted poorer performance in the areas of orientation, language, and praxis.
Results suggest that CFs exert a clinically significant influence over patients’ cognitive abilities and should be considered as a source of excess disability.
; pp. 393–400

Self-Awareness for Memory Impairment in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

To assess memory impairment insight as a predictor of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
During a follow-up of 27.7 (20.8) months, 205 (63.3%) of 324 patients with amnestic MCI progressed to dementia, including 141 to AD. No association was found in the unadjusted, partially adjusted (for sociodemographic variables), and fully adjusted multivariate Cox analysis between the awareness of memory impairment and the progression to dementia and AD.
Awareness or anosognosia of memory deficits, identified by GDS, is not useful to predict progression to dementia of patients with amnestic MCI.
; pp. 401–407

Increasing Burden of Complex Multimorbidity Across Gradients of Cognitive Impairment
The prevalence of most conditions constituting complex MM increased markedly across the spectrum of CI. Further, the percentage of individuals presenting with 10 or more conditions was 19.9%, 39.3%, and 71.3% among those with no CI, mild CI, and moderate/severe CI, respectively.
Greater CI is strongly associated with increased burden of complex MM. Detailed characterization of MM across CI gradients will help identify opportunities for health care improvement. 
; pp. 408–417

Main Plant Extracts’ Active Properties Effective on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Loss
Alzheimer’s disease leads to progressive cognitive function loss, which may impair both intellectual capacities and psychosocial aspects. Although the current knowledge points to a multifactorial character of Alzheimer’s disease, the most issued pathological hypothesis remains the cholinergic theory. The main animal model used in cholinergic theory research is the scopolamine-induced memory loss model. Although, in some cases, a temporary symptomatic relief can be obtained through targeting the cholinergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, no current treatment is able to stop or slow cognitive impairment. Many potentially successful therapies are often blocked by the blood–brain barrier since it exhibits permeability only for several classes of active molecules. However, the plant extracts’ active molecules are extremely diverse and heterogeneous regarding the biochemical structure. In this way, many active compounds constituting the recently tested plant extracts may exhibit the same general effect on acetylcholine pathway, but on different molecular ground, which can be successfully used in Alzheimer’s disease adjuvant therapy.
; pp. 418–428

Botanical Sources for Alzheimer’s: A Review on Reports From Traditional Persian Medicine
Herbal medicines for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have attracted considerable attention nowadays. Alzheimer’s disease is described in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) by the term Nesyān. In this study, 5 main medicinal medieval Persian manuscripts were reviewed to filter plants reported for the treatment of Nesyān. Databases were searched for related possible mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants. Each herb was searched for along with these keywords: “acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibition,” “antioxidant,” “anti-inflammatory,” and “anti-amyloidogenic.” In Total, 44 herbs were used for the treatment of Nesyān; 40 of those were authenticated. Also, 30 plants had at least one of the mechanisms of action that were searched for or related pharmacological functions known for the treatment of AD. In this work, we introduce promising candidates in TPM that could undergo further investigation for identification of their active compounds and clinical validation in the treatment of AD.
; pp. 429–437

Diogenes Syndrome in Frontotemporal Dementia

Diogenes syndrome refers to the combination of extreme self-neglect and excessive collecting with clutter and squalor, which is often present in patients with dementia. Diogenes syndrome may be particularly common in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and the investigation of these patients may help clarify the nature of this syndrome. We describe 5 patients with bvFTD who exhibited a decline in self-care accompanied by hoarding behaviors. These patients, and a review of the literature, suggest a combination of frontal lobe disturbances: loss of insight or self-awareness with a failure to clean up or discard, a general compulsive drive, and an innate impulse to take environmental items. This impulse may be part of the environmental dependency syndrome in frontal disease, with specific involvement of a right frontolimbic–striatal system. Further investigation of the similarities and mechanisms of these symptoms in bvFTD could help in understanding Diogenes syndrome and lead to potential treatment options
; pp. 438–443

DPP4 Inhibitors Can Be a Drug of Choice for Type 3 Diabetes: A Mini Review

As well known to the scientific community, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease that ends up with impairment of memory and cognition due to neuronal and synapse loss. Patient’s quality of life can be enhanced by targeting neurogenesis as a therapeutic paradigm. Moreover, several research evidences support the concept that AD is a type of metabolic disorder mediated by impairment in brain insulin responsiveness and energy metabolism. Growing evidence suggests that endogenous peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) provide neuroprotection across a range of experimental models of AD. So, preserving functional activity of SDF-1α and GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition will enhance the homing/recruitment of brain resident and nonresident circulating stem cells/progenitor cells, a noninvasive approach for promoting neurogenesis. So, herewith we provide this in support of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors as a new target of attention for treating AD.
; pp. 444–451

Issue 6, September 2017 , pp. 313–366
Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment

Irrespective of the study participants’ cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally.
Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

; pp. 313–319

Amyloid Positivity Using [18F]Flutemetamol-PET and Cognitive Deficits in Nondemented Community-Dwelling Older Adults

...the purpose of the current study was to compare cognitive performances among individuals having either increased amyloid deposition (Flute+) or minimal amyloid deposition… Analysis of variance was used to identify the differences among the cognitive and behavioral measures between Flute+/Flute− groups. Flute+ participants performed significantly worse than Flute− participants on RBANS indexes of immediate memory, language, delayed memory, and total scale score, but no significant group differences in the endorsed level of depression or subjective report of cognitive difficulties were observed. Although these results are preliminary, [18F]flutemetamol accurately tracks cognition in a nondemented elderly sample, which may allow for better prediction of cognitive decline in late life.
; pp. 320–328

Impact of Nutritional Supplementation and a Psychomotor Program on Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease

This study aims to evaluate the impact of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and a psychomotor rehabilitation program on nutritional and functional status of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A 21-day prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted and third intervention group performed a psychomotor rehabilitation program. Patients were followed up for 180 days. Mean (standard deviation) score of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) increased both in the nutritional supplementation group (NSG; n = 25), 0.4 (0.8), and in the nutritional supplementation psychomotor rehabilitation program group (NSPRG; n = 11), 1.5 (1.0), versus −0.1 (1.1) in the control group (CG; n = 43), P < .05. Further improvements at 90-day follow-up for MNA in NSG: 1.3 (1.2) and NSPRG: 1.6 (1.0) versus 0.3 (1.7) in CG (P < .05) were observed. General linear model analysis showed that the NSG and NSPRG MNA score improved after intervention, at 21 days and 90 days, was independent of the MNA and Mini-Mental State Examination scores at baseline (Ps > .05). The ONS and a psychomotor rehabilitation program have a positive impact on long-term nutritional and functional status of patients with AD.
; pp. 329–341

The Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 4G/5G Polymorphism and the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease
The results show a significantly increased risk of AD in carriers of the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes versus the wild-type 5G/5G genotype (4G/4G: 28.33% in patients vs 10.0% in controls; P < 10−3; OR = 8.78; 4G/5G: 55.0% in patients vs 38.33% in controls; OR = 4.45; P < 10−3). The 4G allele was also more frequently found in patients compared with controls; P < 10−3; OR = 3.07. For all participants and by gender, homozygotic carriers (4G/4G) were at an increased risk of AD over heterozygotes and women were at an increased risk over their male genotype counterparts. The odds ratio for AD among 4G/4G carriers for any group was approximately twice that of heterozygotes in the same group. Women homozygotes ranked highest for AD risk (OR = 20.8) and, in fact, women heterozygotes (OR = 9.03) ranked higher for risk than male homozygotes (OR = 6.12).
These preliminary exploratory results should be confirmed in a larger study

; pp. 342–346
Elevated Plasma Aβ42 in Cognitively Impaired Individuals Taking ACE Inhibitor Antihypertensives
This study is the first to show an association between ACE-I use and increased plasma Aβ42 level and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in cognitively impaired individuals. Future investigations should assess whether a possible ACE-I-induced increase in plasma Aβ42 indicates improved Aβ42 clearance from brain that contributes to protection from cognitive decline.

; pp. 347–352

Oxidative Stress Markers and Metal Ions are Correlated With Cognitive Function in Alzheimer’s Disease

We investigated oxidative stress markers and metal ions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The serum levels of ceruloplasmin (CER), C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA), homocysteine (Hcy), copper, iron, and zinc were determined in 125 patients with AD (mild, n = 2 8; moderate, n = 42; and severe, n = 55) and 40 healthy control (HC) participants. Compared to HC, CER and UA levels were significantly lower in moderate and severe AD groups, whereas CRP and Hcy levels were significantly higher in the severe AD group. Copper level was significantly higher in moderate and severe AD groups than the other groups. Compared to HC, iron level was significantly higher in patients with AD, whereas zinc level was significantly lower in patients with AD. In patients with AD, the severity of cognitive impairment was positively correlated with CER, UA, and zinc levels, whereas it was negatively correlated with copper level. Taken together, our findings provide a novel approach to assess AD progression.
; pp. 353–359
Bioequivalence Study of Rivastigmine 6 mg Capsules (Single Dose) in Healthy Volunteers
To assess the bioequivalence of generic formulation of rivastigmine (test) and Exelon (reference).
; pp. 360–366

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