December 05, 2017

latest issue of Dementia topics include spirituality, stigma, gardening, challenging behaviours, improving mealtimes and sources of moral distress...

Full text articles and books are available to members of dementia Australia NSW by emailing NSW.Library@dementia.org.au



Volume 16, Issue 7, October 2017


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pp. 815–834

Although the majority of people living with a dementia live in the community, residential facility care by nursing care providers is a significant component of the dementia journey in most countries. Research has also shown that caring for persons with dementia can be emotionally, physically, and ethically challenging, and that turnover in nursing staff in residential care settings tends to be high. Moral distress has been explored in a variety of settings where nurses provide acute or intensive care. The concept, however, has not previously been explored in residential facility care settings, particularly as related to the care of persons with dementia. In this paper, we explore moral distress in these settings, using Nathaniel’s definition of moral distress: the pain or anguish affecting the mind, body, or relationships in response to a situation in which the person is aware of a moral problem, acknowledges moral responsibility, makes a moral judgment about the correct action and yet, as a result of real or perceived constraints, cannot do what is thought to be right. We report findings from a qualitative study of moral distress in a single health region in a Canadian province. Our aim in this paper is to share findings that elucidate the sources of moral distress experienced by nursing care providers in the residential care of people living with dementia.


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pp. 835–852
Dementia commonly leads to difficulties in performing daily activities, which can also often affect the ability to prepare and eat meals. As a result, formal support to maintain good nutritional intake might be needed, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning how to support older persons with dementia living at home. The aim of this study was to explore and describe staff views on how to improve mealtimes for persons with dementia who are still living at home…
The participants described several ways to improve mealtimes for persons with dementia and advocated adjustments facilitating the preservation of the persons’ independence. Finding suitable actions calls for knowledge about the person and his/her individual situation. Proposed actions were enabling meals at home, taking over, and moving meals outside of the home. In addition, it was found that, the types of meals served to these persons should be as familiar to the individual as possible. The results of this study indicate the importance of using a person-centered approach and meeting the individual needs when supporting people with dementia in regards to their meals when living at home. Individualized care in the home may be expensive, however, it is fair to say that people who become malnourished and admitted to hospitals is even more costly. Furthermore, sharing and reflecting experiences and knowledge can assist staff to identify ways to manage complex situations. Therefore, the use of refection should be a part of staff members’ everyday work.



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 pp. 853–864
Hip fracture occurred more frequently in dementia subjects living in nursing homes than in those living at home (9.2% versus 4.3%). Dementia, residence in nursing homes, and osteoporosis were risk factors for fracture development. Antidementia, antipsychotic, and antidepressant drugs generally had no significant impact on hip fracture risk when prescribed for less than six months. Dementia increased hip fracture risk in German primary care practices.


; pp. 865–877

Background

Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are often the reasons for moving to a care home. Care staff, often with limited dementia training, may have to support residents with distressed behaviour on a daily basis. Evidence about the support of residents with distressed or challenging behaviour in the South African context is lacking. This exploratory study aimed to gain an understanding of what care home staff perceived to be distressed behaviour, their coping strategies and how they learned to work with residents with behavioural symptoms of dementia.

Findings

Findings reflected the literature with regard to examples of behavioural symptoms of people with dementia that staff find challenging to manage. Overall, the majority of staff reported holding positive feelings about working with people with dementia. All preferred interpersonal approaches to manage distressed behaviour above medication although a small minority noted the use of medication in some cases. Dementia training was considered by most participants as an unmet need.

Conclusion

This exploratory study identified care home workers’ desires for training about dementia and their preferences for interpersonal as opposed to pharmacological approaches to managing residents’ distressed behaviour. The legacy of race and cultural perspectives in South Africa appears to still influence care practice and provision. Staff commitment, their interest in advancing their practice and their aspirations to offer more person-centred care were evident. Dementia training was identified as potentially helpful to care home staff who manage residents’ distressed behaviour. Training should be developed in South Africa to promote good practice



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; pp. 878–896

Purpose

Drawing on therapeutic physical environmental design principles and Kitwood’s theoretical view of person-centered care, this study examined the impact of environmental renovations in dining spaces of a long-term care facility on residents’ mealtime experience and staff practice in two care units.

Findings

Based on a systematic analysis of observational data and staff survey responses, five themes were identified: (a) autonomy and personal control, (b) comfort of homelike environment, (c) conducive to social interaction, (d) increased personal support, and (e) effective teamwork.

Implications

Although the physical environment can play an influential role in enhancing the dining experience of residents, the variability in staff practices reveals the complexity of mealtime environment and points to the necessity of a systemic approach to foster meaningful culture change.





pp. 897–910

Abstract

Two-thirds of people with dementia reside in their own homes; however, support for community-dwelling people with dementia to continue to participate in everyday activities is often lacking, resulting in feelings of depression and isolation among people living with the condition. Engagement in outdoor activities such as gardening can potentially counteract these negative experiences by enabling people with dementia to interact with nature, helping to improve their physical and psychological well-being. Additionally, the collaborative nature of community gardening may encourage the development of a sense of community, thereby enhancing social integration. Despite increasing evidence supporting its therapeutic value for people with dementia in residential care, the benefits of horticultural therapy have yet to be transposed into a community setting. This paper will examine the theoretical support for the application of horticultural therapy in dementia care, before exploring the potential of horticultural therapy as a means of facilitating improved physical and psychological well-being and social integration for people living with dementia within the community.



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pp. 911–929

Aims

To synthesize research that investigated how residents and caregivers view spiritual care, come to understand the spiritual needs of people with dementia, and how caregivers provide care congruent with peoples’ needs.

Findings

Spiritual care for persons with dementia was described in the forms of (i) performing religious rituals that provides a sense of comfort and(ii) coming to know the person, which provides opportunities to understand a person's meaning and purpose, and (iii) attending to basic needs provides an opportunity to appreciate others’ vulnerability and humanness.

Conclusions

Spiritual care intended to help persons with dementia to express their faith and religious beliefs, and help persons with dementia experience meaning in life, connectedness to self, God/deity and other persons.


 pp. 930–947

Abstract

Research literature in the dementia field lacks examples of ‘best-practices’ demonstrating concretely how it is possible to support the sense of coherence in people with dementia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the nurses’ views concerning a caring approach that may support the sense of coherence in people with dementia. The data were collected through participant observation and focus group interviews during a four-month period in 2011. Sixteen registered nurses recruited from two Norwegian nursing homes participated in this study. The data were interpreted using a phenomenological-hermeneutical method. Three themes were identified: ‘being in the moment’, ‘doing one thing at a time’, and ‘creating joy and contentment’. An overall interpretation of these themes is described by the metaphor ‘slow nursing’, a caring approach that may lead to supporting the sense of coherence in people with dementia.



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 pp. 948–964

Abstract

A qualitative exploration of the stigma of dementia reported that general practitioners described lack of reciprocity as one way in which people with dementia are perceived within society. This was closely linked to their perception of dementia as a stigma. In this article, we explore whether general practitioners perceive people with dementia as lacking reciprocity and, if so, if this is linked with societal opinions about dementia as a stigma. The implications of both perceptions of people with dementia failing to reciprocate and of stigma for timely diagnosis are explored. Our approach is to follow the thread of reciprocity in the data from our initial study. In this follow-up study, general practitioners’ perceptions of societal views of people with dementia included a perception of a lack of reciprocity specifically linked with; failing to respond to human contact, the absence of an appropriate return on social investment and failing to contribute to, or being a burden on, society. General practitioners reported a link between societal perceptions of lack of reciprocity and stereotypes about advanced dementia, difficulties communicating with people with dementia, and lack of opportunities for people with dementia to reciprocate. General practitioners occupy a key position, they can challenge stereotypes and, with support and targeted training about communicating with people living with dementia, can emphasize the ways in which people with dementia can communicate, thereby enhancing their potential to reciprocate. Such changes have implications for improved care and quality of life through the continued maintenance of social inclusion and perceptions of personhood



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