March 15, 2017

American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias


Table of Contents

Volume 32, Issue 1, February 2017

 pp. 5–11
To assess the impact of dysphagia on clinical and operational outcomes in hospitalized patients with dementia.
Dysphagia is a significant predictor of worse clinical and operational outcomes including a 38% longer LOS and a 30% increase in charge per case among hospitalized patients with dementia. Although these findings may not be surprising, this new evidence might bring heightened awareness for the need to more thoughtfully support patients with dementia and dysphagia who are hospitalized

pp. 12–21
The d-mannuronic acid (M2000) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has immunosuppressive effects together with antioxidant property. M2000 has shown a notable efficacy in experimental models of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and nephrotic syndrome. In this work, the effect of M2000 on the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was performed by Morris water maze experiment, and the immunological assessments were carried out by Western blot, apoptosis (procaspase-3, Bax/Bcl2, P53), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase [SOD]), and nonenzymatic oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA]) tests. We found that pretreatment of AD in the rat model by M2000 had a potent efficacy on rat behavior and also it led to a significant inhibition of amyloid plaque production. Moreover, our data showed that M2000 can reduce the amount of Bax/Bcl2, P53, MDA, and SOD, as well as it normalized the level of procaspase-3. Our results suggest M2000 is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.


pp. 22–26
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease. Due to their prominent memory impairment, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often focuses on the hippocampal region. However, recent positron-emission tomography data suggest that within a network of frontal and temporal changes, patients with aMCI show metabolic alterations in the precuneus, a key region for higher cognitive functions. Using high-resolution MRI and whole-brain cortical thickness analyses in 28 patients with aMCI and 25 healthy individuals, we wanted to investigate whether structural changes in the precuneus would be associated with cortical thickness reductions in frontal and temporal brain regions in patients with aMCI. In contrast to healthy people, patients with aMCI showed an association of cortical thinning in the precuneus with predominantly left-hemispheric thickness reductions in medial temporal and frontal cortices. Our data highlight structural neuronal network characteristics among patients with aMCI.

pp. 27–35
The association of variants in CLU, CR1, PICALM, BIN1, ABCA7, and CD33 genes with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) was evaluated and confirmed through genome-wide association study. However, it is unknown whether these associations can be replicated in admixed populations.
This study replicated the associations previously reported in populations of European ancestry and shows that APOE variants have a regulatory role on the effect that variants in other loci have on LOAD, reflecting the importance of gene–gene interactions in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

 pp. 36–40
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test has been shown to be a reliable tool to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, no Georgian language version exists. The goal of this study is to determine the validity, reliability, and accuracy of Georgian version of MoCA in the evaluation of amnestic MCI (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Montreal Cognitive Assessment was translated into Georgian language and was administered to healthy participants (HP) and patients with aMCI and AD. We studied 46 HS, 20 patients with aMCI, and 20 patients with AD. There was significant difference in MoCA scores between HP, patients with aMCI, and patients with AD (P = 0.04). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the aMCI and AD groups by MoCA was 0.88 and 0.95, respectively, compared to 0.43 and 0.67 by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The Georgian version of MoCA is a valid, reliable, and sensitive screening tool to detect aMCI and AD in Georgian-speaking population and is superior to MMSE

Effective communication between residents with dementia and care providers in long-term care homes (LTCHs) is essential to resident-centered care.
Purpose :
To determine the effects of a communication intervention on residents’ quality of life (QOL) and care, as well as care providers’ perceived knowledge, mood, and burden.
The rate of care providers’ adherence to the communication plans was 91%. Postintervention, residents experienced a significant increase in overall QOL. Care providers had significant improvement in mood and perceived reduced burden.
The results suggest that the communication intervention demonstrates preliminary evidence of positive effects on residents’ QOL and care providers’ mood and burden.

Current Topics in Care

Pp; 56–62
Although most individuals experiencing cognitive impairment (CI) reside with a caregiver, an estimated 800,000 live alone. Such individuals may have an increased risk for injury to self or others through self-neglect as a result of the CI symptoms. While persons living alone with CI have been identified as an important area for needed research, few studies have been able to examine this population due to the challenges of identifying and recruiting study participants. By using the National Health & Aging Trends Study data set, the researchers explored the characteristics to describe this population. The results of this study indicated that the majority of persons living with CI were older, widowed females who were not diagnosed with Alzheimer’s or dementia but tested positive on cognitive screening measures. Further, the majority of persons living alone with CI relied on adult children and paid professionals as the primary care providers.


 pp. 63–66
Currently, there is not enough time or staff in the physician’s office to provide education about Alzheimer’s disease for newly diagnosed patients and their family members. The Alzheimer’s Association Cleveland Area Chapter has implemented a novel approach for individuals to connect to helpful information about Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias while at the physician’s office. This project is being piloted at two memory assessment clinics of The Cleveland Clinic as a way to give assessment center staff the opportunity to connect families right away with the free support services available at the Association.


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