November 18, 2016

American journal of Alzheimer’s disease & other dementias

American journal of Alzheimer’s disease & other dementias
Table of Contents
November 2016; 31 (7)
 
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Current Topics in Research
Simple Neuropsychological Tests May Identify Participants in Whom Aspirin Use Is Associated With Lower Dementia Incidence: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging
P 545-550
Abstract
Background: We hypothesized that neuropsychological tests could help in identifying preclinical stages of vascular cognitive impairment, when aspirin use might be associated with lower dementia incidence.
Conclusions: Two simple neuropsychological tests might help in identifying preclinical stages of vascular cognitive impairment, and salicylates use was associated with lower dementia incidence.
 
Shedding a Light on Phototherapy Studies with People having Dementia: A Critical Review of the Methodology from a Light Perspective
 551-563,
Abstract
Light therapy is applied to older people with dementia as a treatment to reset the biological clock, to improve the cognitive functioning, and to reduce behavioral symptoms. … This study reviewed light therapy studies concerning the effects on people with dementia as a way to check the methodological quality of the description of light from a light engineering perspective. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were chosen for further analysis. .. The studies describe the lighting insufficiently and not in the correct metrics. The robustness of light therapy studies can be improved by involving a light engineer or specialist.
 
The Effect of Undiagnosed Diabetes on the Association Between Self-Reported Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment Among Older Mexican Adults
p564-569,

Abstract
Purpose: To study the effect of undiagnosed diabetes on the relationship between self-reported diabetes and cognitive impairment.
Discussion: The association between self-reported diabetes and severe cognitive impairment is underestimated when undiagnosed diabetics are not differentiated from self-reported diabetics and nondiabetics.
 
 
Pilot Testing of the EIT-4-BPSD Intervention
P 570-579,
Abstract
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are common in nursing home residents, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services now require that nonpharmacological interventions be used as a first-line treatment. Few staff know how to implement these interventions. The purpose of this study was to pilot test an implementation strategy, Evidence Integration Triangle for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (EIT-4-BPSD), which was developed to help staff integrate behavioral interventions into routine care. …A research nurse facilitator worked with facility champions and a stakeholder team to implement the 4 steps of EIT-4-BPSD. There was evidence of reach to all staff; effectiveness with improvement in residents’ quality of life and a decrease in agitation; adoption based on the environment, policy, and care plan changes; and implementation and plans for maintenance beyond the 6-month intervention period.
 
Current Topics in Management
Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors on Balance and Gait Functions and Orthostatic Hypotension in Elderly Patients With Alzheimer Disease
P 580-584,
Abstract
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) therapy on balance, gait, and orthostatic hypotension (OH) in elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Conclusion: Curative effects of AchEIs, which are used in the treatment of AD, on cognitive performance are reflected also in balance functions. Moreover, it was observed that these drugs do not increase the prevalence of OH.
 
Review
Clinical Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Management of Dementia in Parkinson Disease
p 585-594,
Abstract
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) will increase substantially, due to the aging of the population and improved treatments leading to better disease-related outcomes. Dementia is the most common nonmotor symptom in PD, and most patients with PD will have cognitive dysfunction and cognitive decline in the course of their disease. The development of cognitive dysfunction in PD greatly limits the ability to participate in activities of daily living and can be a tipping point for nursing home placement or major caregiver stress. Understanding the different causes of dementia and how to reduce the incidence and impact of secondary cognitive dysfunction in PD are necessary skills for primary care physicians and neurologists. In this review, we discuss the clinical epidemiology of dementia in PD with an emphasis on preventable cognitive dysfunction, present tools for outpatient evaluation of cognitive dysfunction, and describe current pharmacological treatments for dementia in PD.
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