October 14, 2015


September 2015
Lack of Genetic Association Between TREM2 and Alzheimer’s Disease in East Asian Population:
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Pages: 541-546
Purpose: Large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified TREM2 variants to be significantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in caucasian population. The goal of this systematic study and meta-analysis was to assess the association between Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) variants and AD in East Asian population.
Methods: In this study, literatures were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library to screen citations from January 1990 to June 2014. Data analysis was done by using the Stata 12 software.
Results: Twelve studies were considered for analysis. A total of 13 535 patients with AD and 22 976 healthy controls were studied. The results showed that rs75932628 variant was significantly associated with AD in caucasian population (P < .001, odds ratio = 3.17, 95% confidence interval 2.45-4.09). However, the association was not found in East Asian population.
Cognitive Screening in Persons With Chronic Diseases in Primary Care: Challenges and Recommendations for Practice
Pages: 547-558
An integrative literature review was performed to identify the challenges in current cognitive screening. The aim of the review was to serve as an evaluative resource to guide clinicians in the selection of the best available cognitive screening measures for early assessment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in people with chronic diseases. The review classified the available cognitive screening measures according to purpose, time to administer, and cognitive domains assessed as: 1) simple/ brief cognitive screening measures, 2) disease specific screening measures, 3) domain specific screening measures, 4) self-administered screening measures, and 5) technology-based screening measures. There is no single optimal cognitive measure for all patient populations and settings. Although disease specific cognitive screening measures are optimal, there is a lack of validated screening measures for many chronic diseases. Technology-based screening measure is a promising avenue for increasing the accessibility of cognitive screening. Future work should focus on translating available screening measures to mobile technology format to enhance the utility in busy primary care settings. Early cognitive screening in persons with chronic disease should enhance appropriate referrals for detailed neurocognitive examination and cognitive interventions to preserve and or minimize cognitive decline.
Meaningful Activity for Persons With Dementia: Family Caregiver Perspectives
Pages: 559-568
Dementia threatens the capacity to engage in activity, suggesting meaningful activity may be helpful for persons with dementia (PWDs). This study explores the concept of meaningful activity, as defined by caregivers of PWDs. Family caregivers of PWDs, who provide 3 hours of care over 3 days/week, were interviewed after 6 months of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) therapy. Caregiver responses (N = 906) to the open-ended question What do you believe getting involved in activities outside the home means for someone with dementia are assessed. The themes are analyzed in terms of content, frequency, co-occurrence, and dementia severity. Caregivers emphasize the benefits of social connectedness, physical health, and mental stimulation. Activity is also viewed as respite, difficult, and has no meaning for care recipient. The implications of activity for self- and social-identity in PWD and caregiver are discussed. The benefits of activity varied by stage of disease. This knowledge indicates areas for improved activity provision and health care support.
Intracranial Hypotension-Like Syndrome After a Spinal Tap Test Performed for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Pages: 569-572
It is somewhat unexpected to have headaches in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) for which the treatment is drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using shunt. Moreover, intracranial hypotension syndrome (IHS) can be a challenging diagnosis, as CSF leak may be difficult to confirm as imaging findings can be normal. This report describes a woman with INPH who developed symptoms of IHS after a spinal tap test. There might be cases with IHS, like our case, who do not completely fulfill the current diagnostic criteria in terms of not having any objective evidence of intracranial hypotension but who also could not be explained by other conditions and recovered totally after classical IHS treatment. Current diagnostic criteria for IHS might be revised for those having normal neuroimaging and not accepting lumbar puncture. Nevertheless, when the history, signs, and symptoms strongly suggest IHS even with normal imaging, treatment should be started immediately.
The Family Series Workshop: A Community-Based Psychoeducational Intervention
Pages: 573-583
This study describes an evaluation of a community-based psychoeducational intervention, called The Family Series Workshop, for caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias (ADRD). In a one-group pretest–posttest design, participants (n = 35) attended six weekly sessions. Caregiver stress, coping, and caregiving competence were evaluated along with demographic characteristics of participants. There was a significant improvement found for caregiving competence, and a marginally significant increase in coping with humor. Using regression analysis we also found that coping with humor, along with stress, were significant predictors of caregiving competence. These findings indicate that it is possible to increase caregiving competence utilizing a “grassroots” approach and that it is feasible to hold educational, group discussions on a plethora of challenging caregiving topics.
Characteristics and Mental Health of Hispanic Dementia Caregivers in New York City
Pages: 584-590
Background: Dementia prevalence and related caregiving burden are increasing, particularly among Hispanics. We studied the characteristics and mental health of Hispanic caregivers in New York City.
Methods: We recruited 139 Hispanic family caregivers. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics and predictors of caregiver burden, measured with the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, and depressive symptoms, measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale.
Results: The mean age was 59.3 ± 10.4 years. The majority of caregivers were daughters and earned less than US$30 000 a year. In multivariate analyses with linear regression, lower satisfaction with social networks was associated with higher caregiver burden and a greater number of depressive symptoms. Higher dementia severity was associated with higher caregiver burden, while higher caregiver comorbidities were associated with higher depressive symptoms.
Worries About Getting Alzheimer’s: Who’s Concerned?
Pages: 591-598
The prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is projected to grow dramatically, but efforts to treat its progression have been unsuccessful. Fear of AD among older persons is greater than fear of cancer, and lingering worries about developing AD can be detrimental to well-being. Yet, much remains to be known about such worries and their precursors. This study, based on data from the Health and Retirement Survey, examines correlates of worry. Results of multivariate analyses show the following to be independent and significant correlates: present memory ratings, perceived changes in memory, personal familiarity with AD, belief that being a first-degree relative of someone with AD heightens the chance of developing AD, and age. Interaction analyses show that memory ratings and perceived changes in memory functioning are associated with worry regardless of personal familiarity. These findings will enable practitioners to identify patients and clients at risk of being worried about getting AD.
Concordance Between 11C-PIB-PET and Clinical Diagnosis in a Memory Clinic
Pages: 599-606
Introduction: Today, ligands that bind to fibrillar β-amyloid are detectable by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) allowing for in vivo visualization for Abeta burden. However, amyloid plaques detection per se does not establish Alzheimer’s Disease diagnosis. In this sense, the utility of amyloid imaging to improve clinical diagnosis was settled only for specific clinical scenarios and few studies have assessed amyloid molecular neuroimaging in a broader clinical setting. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of PiB amyloid findings in different diagnostic syndromes grouped into high and low probability pre- test categories, taking into account pre-test clinical assumption of the presence of AD related pathology.
Methods: 144 patients were assigned into categories of high or low pretest probability according to clinical suspicion of AD pathology. The high probability group included: amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), amnestic and other domains MCI, Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (DAT), Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA), logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA), Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and mixed dementia. The low assumption group included: normal controls, non-amnestic MCI, non-logopenic PPA and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD).
Results: Only normal controls and DAT patients (typical and atypical presentation) were the most consistent across clinical and molecular diagnostics. MCI, non-logopenic PPA and FTD were the syndromic diagnoses that most discrepancies were found.
Influence of Asafoetida on Prevention and Treatment of Memory Impairment Induced by d-Galactose and NaNO2 in Mice
Pages: 607-612
In Iranian traditional medicine, asafoetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for nervous disorders. Dementia was induced by injection of d-galactose and NaNO2 for 60 consecutive days. Animals were divided into normal control (NC), dementia control (DC), dementia prophylactic (DP), and dementia treated (DT). The learning and memory functions were examined by 1-way active and passive avoidance tests, using a shuttle box device. Avoidance response in training tests and 1 and 3 weeks later was significantly increased in NC, DP, and DT groups compared to the DC group. Step through latency in all groups was significantly greater than the DC group. Total time spent in light room, which shows the memory retention ability, in DP, NC, and DT was significantly greater than the DC group. Our findings indicate that asafoetida could prevent and treat amnesia. These beneficial effects may be related to some constituent’s effectiveness such as ferulic acid and umbelliferone.
Examining the Influence of Family Dynamics on Quality of Care by Informal Caregivers of Patients With Alzheimer’s Dementia in Argentina
Pages: 613-621
Purpose: This study examined the pattern of family dynamics of Argentinian individuals with dementia that most heavily influences the quality of care provided by family caregivers (CGs).
Method: One hundred and two CGs of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease in Argentina participated in this study. The majority (75%) were female, with an average age of 57.8 years (standard deviation = 13.5) and had spent a median of 48 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 36.00-60.00) providing care to their family member with dementia, devoting a median of 60 hours (IQR: 50.00-80.00) per week to these duties. Caregivers completed Spanish versions of instruments assessing their family dynamics and quality-of-care provision.
Results: Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that higher quality of informal care (Provide and Respect) was related to greater levels of empathy and reduced levels of overall dysfunction in CGs’ families. Higher quality of care—Provide was also related to shorter duration of time (in months) spent providing care.
Verbal Memory and Brain Aging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Role of Error Responses in the Framingham Study
Pages: 622-628
Objective: Analysis sought to determine whether Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory (LM)-correct responses and errors were related to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain volume measurements.
Methods: The LM immediate (LM-I) and LM delay (LM-D) free recall correct responses and related and unrelated errors were scored. Principal components analysis yielded a 3-factor solution: LM-I and LM-D correct responses, LM-I and LM-D-unrelated errors, and LM-I/-D-related errors. The MRI total cerebral brain volume, frontal brain volume, temporal horn volume (THV), and white matter hyperintensities volume (WMHIV) were obtained.
Results: Increasing THV (suggesting greater regional atrophy) was associated with lower scores on the LM-correct responses factor. Extensive WMHIV was associated with higher scores on the LM-related errors factor.
Increased Risk of Dementia Among Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study
Pages: 629-634
Objective: We investigated and compared the risk of dementia development in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis (TB).
Methods: The study involved 6473 patient with newly diagnosed TB, and each patient was randomly frequency matched with 4 people without TB based on age, sex, and index year. The risk of dementia development was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results: Among the patients with TB, the overall risk of developing dementia was 1.21-fold significantly higher than the non-TB cohort. In the stratified analysis of dementia risks, only the patients with TB who were male or 50 to 64 years of age exhibited a significantly higher risk of dementia development compared with those without TB. An analysis of the follow-up duration revealed that patients with TB had a 1.78-fold increased risk within 1 year of follow-up.
The Italian Validation of the Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease
Pages: 635-644
Although the Anosognosia Questionnaire-Dementia (AQ-D) is one of the main instruments for assessing awareness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the normative data were until now limited to people from Argentina and Japan. This study aims to validate this instrument in an European context, in particular in an Italian sample. In a multicenter project (Verona, Padova, and Trapani), 130 patients with AD and their caregivers participated in the study. Psychometric characteristics of AQ-D are confirmed indicating that the scale permits the early identification of anosognosia and the correct care management of patients. Indeed, anosognosia results to be present also in patients with very mild AD (moderate: 44.44%; mild: 47.17%; and very mild: 23.73%). Moreover, the results indicate that deficits in awareness may vary in severity and that different types of anosognosia may be identified.

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