May 11, 2015

American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias March 2015

Full text articles are available to fee paying members of Alzheimer’s Australia NSW by emailing 
Melatonin and Melatonin Agonist for Delirium in the Elderly Patients
The objective of this review is to summarize the available data on the use of melatonin and melatonin agonist for the prevention and management of delirium in the elderly patients from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search of 5 major databases PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted. This search yielded a total of 2 RCTs for melatonin.
p. 119-129

Supporting Direct Care Workers in Dementia Care Effects of a Psychoeducational Intervention
An experimental study using a pre–posttest control group design was conducted to assess the effects of a person-centered care-based psychoeducational intervention on direct care workers’ stress, burnout, and job satisfaction. The intervention aimed to develop person-centered care competences and tools for stress management.
p. 130-138 

Effect of APOE and CHRNA7 Genotypes on the Cognitive Response to Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment at Different Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
The loss of cholinergic transmission is considered to be an important cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Treatment with acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) shows benefits; however, great heterogeneity has been observed in patient responses. We evaluated apolipoprotein E (APOE) and a7 nicotinic receptor (CHRNA7) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated these SNPs with pharmacological responses to ChEIs in a Brazilian population with AD.
p. 139-144 

Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination Scores and Verbal Memory Performance at a Memory Center Implications for Cognitive Screening
Memory decline is often among the first signs heralding the emergence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia regardless of etiology. Despite its limited inclusion of memory screening, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) continues to be the most ubiquitous, first-line screening tool for dementia and cognitive decline. In response to well documented problems with the sensitivity of this instrument and the growing importance of cognitive screening, we assessed the utility of the MMSE as a screening tool among older adults presenting for evaluation at a memory clinic.
p. 145-152 

Cognitive Stimulation of Executive Functions in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Specific Efficacy and Impact in Memory
Executive functions play an important role in the maintenance of autonomy in day-to-day activities. Nevertheless, there is little research into specific cognitive training for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We present the results of a program which aims to teach specific strategies and metacognitive abilities in order for patients to be able to carry out attentional and executive tasks.
p. 153-164 

Feeding Tubes for Older People With Advanced Dementia Living in the
Community in Israel
Background: Feeding tubes to address eating problems of older people with advanced dementia (OPAD) has been studied primarily in nursing homes. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of feeding tube use among OPAD living in the community; to evaluate the characteristics, quality of care, and the burden on caregivers.

Clinical Characterization of Mild Cognitive Impairment as a Prodrome to Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Limited information regarding the specificity of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as it relates to dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) exists. Here, we summarize the clinical phenotype of MCI in clinically suspect DLB. Ten patients with a primary diagnosis of MCI and secondary diagnoses of DLB were identified. Patients underwent clinical neurological and neuropsychological evaluation that included application of McKeith criteria.
p. 173-177 

Role of Traditional Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been evaluated in many studies. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the existing evidence on the relation between use of classical NSAIDs and AD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of classical NSAIDs in AD was searched using different search engines.
p. 178-182 

Sulforaphane Ameliorates Neurobehavioral Deficits and Protects the Brain From Amyloid b Deposits and Peroxidation in Mice With Alzheimer-Like Lesions
This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotection of sulforaphane (SFN) in AD-lesion mice induced by combined administration of D-galactose and aluminium. Results showed that SFN ameliorated spatial cognitive impairment and locomotor activity decrease in Morris water maze and open field test, respectively.
p. 183-191 

Prolonged grief in caregivers of community-dwelling dementia patients
Objectives: To estimate the frequency of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in 90 primary caregivers of patients with dementia who live in the community dwelling in Milan and to identify the relationship between grief intensity (GI) and other caregiver variables; another aim was to clarify the role of the objective cognitive and functional impairment of the patients and the level of  deterioration perceived by caregivers.

Insulin Treatment Prevents the Increase in D-Serine in Hippocampal CA1 Area of Diabetic Rats
Purpose: Diabetes is a high risk factor for dementia. Employing a diabetic rat model, the present study was designed to determine whether the content of D-serine (D-Ser) in hippocampus is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory ability. Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The insulin treatment began 3 days after STZ injection.
p. 201-208 

Field Observations into the Environmental Soul: Spatial Configuration and Social Life for People Experiencing Dementia
This article focuses on the important, facilitating role architectural design plays in social interaction within long-term care facilities (LTCFs) serving people with dementia. Here, we apply space syntax, a set of theories and techniques for the analysis of spatial configurations, as an objective measure of environmental characteristics. The findings suggest an important nuance that architectural configuration factors impact not only the likelihood but also the type of conversations likely to occur in certain locations. This would have implications for both design and staff training on how best to utilize social spaces for therapeutic effect, particularly within the context of person-centered care.
p. 209-218


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