April 27, 2015

Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders January-March 2015

Full text articles are available to fee paying members of Alzheimer’s Australia NSW by emailing NSW.Library@alzheimers.org.au 

Dantrolene, A Treatment for Alzheimer Disease?
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a fatal progressive disease and the most common form of dementia without effective treatments. Previous studies support that the disruption of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ through overactivation of ryanodine receptors plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Normalization of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis could be an effective strategy for AD therapies. Dantrolene, an antagonist of ryanodine receptors and an FDA-approved drug for clinical treatment of malignant hyperthermia and muscle spasms, exhibits neuroprotective effects in multiple models of neurodegenerative disorders. Recent preclinical studies consistently support the therapeutic effects of dantrolene in various types of AD animal models and were summarized in the current review. 

Angina Pectoris Severity Among Coronary Heart Disease Patients is Associated With Subsequent Cognitive Impairment
Background: The relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and cognitive function is not completely elucidated. We examined the association between severity of angina pectoris (AP) in mid-life and subsequent cognitive impairment among CHD patients.
Conclusions: In people with preexisting CHD, severity of AP is associated with late-life poorer cognitive performance, independent of other vascular risk factors.

Intracranial Stenosis, Cerebrovascular Diseases, and Cognitive Impairment in Chinese
Extracranial carotid artery disease has been shown to be related to cognitive deficits. However, limited data are available on intracranial stenosis (ICS) and cognitive impairment. We investigate the association between ICS and cognitive impairment in Chinese.  

Vascular Disease and Risk Factors are Associated With Cognitive Decline in the Alzheimer Disease Spectrum
We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia subjects.
The results suggest a significant association of increased vascular disease and risk factors with cognitive impairment at baseline and over time in the AD spectrum in a sample that was selected to have low vascular burden at baseline. 

Mild Cognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer Disease is Less Likely Under the Age of 65
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are considered to have a high risk for Alzheimer dementia (AD). Even high positive predictive values, however, cannot be guaranteed even by tests with high sensitivity and specificity when disease prevalence is low. If we regard the clinical criteria for aMCI as a test for predicting aMCI due to AD, the positive predictive value of the criteria will be low by definition in young patients with aMCI (age below 65 years) because of the low prevalence of AD in this age group.
Normative Data for 8 Neuropsychological Tests in Older Blacks and Whites From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurological disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education-specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61 to 82 years (mean 71 y) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. 
The Rest-Activity Rhythm and Physical Activity in Early-Onset Dementia
Background: A substantial part of elderly persons with dementia show rest-activity rhythm disturbances. The rest-activity rhythm is important to study in people with early-onset dementia (EOD) for rest-activity rhythm disturbances are predictive of institutionalization, and caregivers of young patients suffer from high distress.
Conclusions: EOD patients showed more variability in the rest-activity rhythm compared with cognitively intact adults. The main predictor for rest-activity rhythm disturbances was a low level of physical activity. 

Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease: A Comparison of Patients’ and Caregivers’ Points of View
Unlike in other chronic diseases, the Quality of Life (QoL) of patients affected by Alzheimer Disease (AD) has not been well established, primarily because of the difficulties stemming from the study of patients with cognitive disorders. Because no cure is currently available for AD, the optimization of QoL represents the best possible outcome attainable in all stages of disease, making QoL assessment mandatory.  

Cognitive Intervention in Semantic Dementia: Maintaining Words Over Time
Patients with semantic dementia (SD) can improve their naming ability through cognitive intervention, with good retention 1 month later. Beyond this time, improvements often fade, yet no studies have investigated how to maintain performance. 

Alterations in Cholesterol and Ganglioside GM1 Content of Lipid Rafts in Platelets From Patients With Alzheimer Disease
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the protein, cholesterol, and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and identify potential blood biomarkers of the disease.  

Why are Spousal Caregivers More Prevalent than Nonspousal Caregivers as Study Partners in AD Dementia Clinical Trials?
Objectives: Most Alzheimer disease (AD) caregivers are not spouses and yet most AD dementia trials enroll spousal study partners. This study examines the association between caregiver relationship to the patient and willingness to enroll in an AD clinical trial and how caregiver burden and research attitudes modify willingness. 

Errors in Self-Reports of Health Services Use: Impact on Alzheimer Disease Clinical Trial Designs
Background: Most Alzheimer disease clinical trials that compare the use of health services rely on reports of caregivers. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of self-reports among older adults with Alzheimer disease and their caregiver proxy respondents. This issue is particularly relevant to Alzheimer disease clinical trials because inaccuracy can lead both to loss of power and increased bias in study outcomes. 

 Brief Reports
  • A Case of Globular Glial Tauopathy Presenting Clinically as Alzheimer Disease
  • Whipple’s Disease Masquerades as Dementia With Lewy Bodies
  • Early-onset Alzheimers and Cortical Vision Impairment in a Woman With Valosin-containing Protein Disease Associated With 2 APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4/APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4 Genotype
  • Clinical Amyloid Imaging in Logopenic Progressive Aphasia
  • Proinflammatory Cytokines and the Clinical Features of Dementia With Lewy Bodies

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