July 31, 2014

Alzheimer's Disease and Associated Disorders - April/June 2014

Full text articles are available to fee paying members of Alzheimer’s Australia NSW by emailing NSW.Library@alzheimers.org.au 


The Red Cell Distribution Width and Anemia in Association With Prevalent Dementia
The red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, independently predicts cardiovascular disease outcomes and chronic disease mortality. Little is known about the RDW, or the interplay between RDW and anemia, in relation to dementia risk. We evaluated the association between the RDW and prevalent dementia, overall and by anemia status, among 2556 community-dwelling older adults participating in the Chicago Health and Aging Project.
p. 99-105 

Cerebral Microbleeds and Cognition: The Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are considered to be a novel marker of cerebral small vessel disease. However, the link with cognitive impairment remains unclear. We investigated whether CMBs—independent of other traditional markers of cerebral small vessel disease—are related to cognition. Chinese subjects from the population-based Singapore Chinese Eye Study, who failed an initial cognitive screening and were recruited into the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study, underwent neuropsychological testing and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging.
p. 106-112


How Well Do MCI Criteria Predict Progression to Severe Cognitive Impairment and Dementia?
The International Working Group (IWG) criteria for mild cognitive impairment have variable utility in predicting progression to dementia, partly depending on the setting. We explored an empiric approach to optimize the criteria and cutoff points in a population study.
p. 113-121

The Effect of APOE ε4 Allele on Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Patients With Alzheimer Disease: Evaluation of the Feasibility of Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This work is to determine whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modulates the effect of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment on resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We retrospectively studied very mild and mild AD participants who were treated (N=25) or untreated (N=19) with ChEIs with respect to rs-fcMRI measure of 5 resting state networks (RSNs): default mode, dorsal attention (DAN), control (CON), salience (SAL), and sensory motor.
p. 122-127

Medication Adherence in Patients With Dementia: An Austrian Cohort Study
Sustained treatment with effective doses of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine is crucial to transfer treatment effects in dementia. Numerous studies, with often small samples sizes, describe low adherence rates. The purpose of current study was to examine the medical adherence of antidementia therapy in Austria.
p. 128-133 

Gene-Environment Interaction of Body Mass Index and Apolipoprotein E ε4 Allele on Cognitive Decline
Genetic variation alone may not account for common chronic disease susceptibility. Rather, an interaction between genetic and environmental factors may clarify the underlying disease mechanism. Hence, we tested whether body mass index (BMI) modified the genetic association of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele with cognitive decline. The data came from a longitudinal population-based sample of 4055 participants interviewed at 3-year intervals from 1993 to 2012.
p. 134-140 

A Complex Association of ABCA7 Genotypes With Sporadic Alzheimer Disease in Chinese Han Population
Recently, a large genome-wide association study has revealed that polymorphism of alleles and genotypes in rs3,764,650 within ABCA7 gene is associated with Alzheimer disease in whites. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether these susceptible genetic variants are risk factors for sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD) in Chinese Han population.
p. 141-144 

Sleep Habits in Mild Cognitive Impairment
We explored the relationship between sleep disturbances and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling seniors. Recent evidence suggests that sleep habits are differentially compromised in different subtypes of MCI, but the relationship between sleep disruption and MCI remains poorly understood.
p. 145-150 

The Mild Cognitive Impairment Stage of Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease: A Comparison of Cognitive Profiles
Recent studies have demonstrated that structural and pathologic changes are more severe in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in those with Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD). We investigated neuropsychological characteristics of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of DLB (DLB-MCI) and PD (PD-MCI) based on the hypothesis that the pathologic differences between DLB and PDD can influence cognitive profiles in the MCI stage of these diseases.
p. 151-155

Comparison of 2 Informant Questionnaire Screening Tools for Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment: AD8 and IQCODE
Dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are underrecognized in community settings. This may be due in part to the lack of brief dementia screening tools available to clinicians. We compared 2 brief, informant-based screening tests: the AD8 and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) in a community-based neurology practice in the midwestern United States.
p. 156-161 

Neuropsychological Deficits Associated With Route Learning in Alzheimer Disease, MCI, and Normal Aging
The background of route learning (RL) abilities in Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal aging needs further study. We searched for neuropsychological and demographical predictors of RL impairment.
p. 162-167 

Validation and Diagnostic Utility of the Dementia Rating Scale in a Mixed Dementia Population
The Dementia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS), a previously validated caregiver-based measure assessing dementia severity, was recently revised to improve clarity. Our study aims included: (1) identifying the DSRS factor structure, (2) examining the relation between neuropsychological measures, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and clinical diagnoses with the DSRS, and (3) determining the clinical utility of the DSRS in a mixed clinical sample. A total of 270 veterans were referred to a cognitive disorders clinic at a VA medical center and completed neuropsychological, affective, and cognitive screening measures. p. p. 168-174 

Life Enhancing Activities for Family Caregivers of People With Frontotemporal Dementia
Aberrant psychological and behavioral symptoms are common in patients with dementia. These symptoms have negative consequences for family caregivers, causing stress and burden. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) symptoms cause more pronounced stress and burden on caregivers than those associated with Alzheimer dementia. In this randomized, attention control pilot study, we delivered 5-weekly, one-on-one, positive affect intervention sessions to family caregivers of people with FTD. The program, Life Enhancing Activities for Family Caregivers: LEAF was conducted in-person or by videoconference with caregivers across the United States.
p. 175-181 

Demographic and Neuropsychiatric Factors Associated With Off-label Medication Use in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease
Off-label medication use for treating cognitive impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms occurs in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). We compared the use of cognitive and psychiatric medications in FTD and AD and evaluated the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptoms and medication use.Cognitive and psychiatric medication use, demographic variables, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscale symptoms were obtained from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set (n=3958, 8.1% FTD). Bivariate statistics and logistic regressions were calculated to evaluate which demographic or NPI subscale symptoms predicted medication use.
p. 182-189 

Novel TARDBP Sequence Variant and C9ORF72 Repeat Expansion in a Family With Frontotemporal Dementia
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a genetically heterogenous syndrome and has been associated most recently with a hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9ORF72 gene. Pathogenic TDP-43 gene (TARDBP) mutations have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the role of TARDBP mutations in FTLD is more contradictory. To investigate the role of TARDBP mutations in a clinical series of Finnish FTLD patients, we sequenced TARDBP exons 1 to 6 in 77 FTLD patients.
p. 190-193 

Olfactory Deficit and Hippocampal Volume Loss for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease: A Pilot Study
The aim of this pilot study was to verify the role of olfactory test and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging measure of hippocampus to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease (AD).
p. 194-197






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